FAQ - Wireless Hardware

55 - Can I use one CXLDK interface board to read multiple sensors?

The interface board is designed to work with one sensor. However, the CXLDK does have a 4-channel A/D converter. So with some work, you could wire four analog signals to the board. X-View/Accelview will not display the 4th channel, but it is transmitted in the data packet. You would have to write your own software to display the 4th channel.

56 - Can I use the CXLDK interface board as the basis of a spectrum analyzer system?

You will be limited by the data rate of the board and software combination to frequencies less than 100 Hz. You will not have accurate control over the sample timing or rate.

57 - I want to use X-View / AccelView / GyroView and am having trouble connecting to the COM port. What do I have to do?

Check your configuration -- are you really connected to the com port shown in X-View/GyroView? The program can tell the difference between no connection, and error in the com port, and everything's fine.

Check your power supply. Check your cable.

Make sure that you do not have any other software installed that takes over the com port you are trying to use. For example, the hotsync manager for palm pilots will take the serial port, and hold it, even when you are not connected to your palm pilot. In this case, you need to make sure that the hotsync manager is turned off.

58 - Where is the manual to the AccelView software?

The manual is part of the software. Any time you see a "help" button, click on it to get to the html manual.

61 - I'd like to download your latest software to run a DMU. Where can I find your demo software for DMUs?

We have released a new demo program for DMUs called GyroView. It allows you to quickly connect to a DMU and start collecting data. It will self-configure to your DMU, and let you graph and log data in real time. You can download GyroView from
http://www.xbow.com/Support/downloads.htm

This program is a replacement for X-View and X-Analyze. GyroView is more stable across Windows platforms, and adds more functionality.

62 - Where can I download AccelView?

You can download AccelView from
http://www.xbow.com/Support/downloads.htm#accelview

AccelView is a demo program meant to interface with our CXLDK or CXTILT02. GyroView is the demo software for our DMU (gyro) products. AccelView is a replacement for old X-View and X-Analyze.

65 - Will CXLDK permit real-time viewing on laptop?

Yes, you can use the CXLDK with our software AccelView for real-time viewing and data logging. AccelView is shipped with the CXLDK.

66 - We are using CXL02TG3 accelerometer in conjunction with CXLDK. We found suspicious noise spikes in the output signal that is higher than the noise spec. provided in the data sheet. Is this a bad sensor? If not, how can I get around this problem?

The spikes are caused by the prescense of clocking signal. This is a result of the ASIC at the Read Out of the TG sensor causing the "clock feedthrough", the presence of some output signal at the clock frequency (in this case 5 KHz). Since the CXL02TG3 does not have an output filter on the signal, this signal appears on the output. When used in conjunction with CXLDK, the clock signal gets aliased (CXLDK samples at 125Hz) and appear as random spikes. Clearly, this is way out of the signal measurement bandwidth.

Hence it is not a faulty sensor and the behavior you are observing is not the random noise spikes. The best way to get rid of this is to install a low-pass output filter on the sensor (using simple RC circuit of 800 Hz or so). This needs to be done at the sensor output end before it is hooked up to the CXLDK.

67 - How many amps does the CXLDK Digital Interface card consume?

The typical current drawn is 32 mA. It also varies with the type of the sensor you are hooking up to the board.

68 - I don't see full scale output from the accelerometer connected to the CXLDK using Accelview. Is this a faulty sensor?

It is not a faulty sensor, but an incompatible design. The input range of the CXLDK is between 0-4V and hence any signal above 4V gets clipped off. Most of our sensors output between 0-5V. If you intend to use the full range of the sensor, it might not be possible without additional circuit modification. i.e. either using a voltage divider or op-amp circuit to scale the range.

71 - Is it possible to use DDE when running Accel View to dump data into a spreadsheet application?

Currently AccelView is a standalone executable, meant to be used as a demo program. The log files can certainly be imported into a spreadsheet program, but only after the log file is closed.

72 - The connectors on the CXL acceleromters seem to be incompatible with AD128/AD2000 data logger. Could you please assist me how to go about resolving this problem?

The standard connector that we have on most of our acceleromters is the 5-pin female connector. We understand that there is some inconvenience as to connect it with AD128. There are two possible ways you can connect this unit with AD128 data logger.

1) To cut off the connector from the cable to access the wires and connect directly to the screw terminal on AD128.

2) Obtain the mating connector from the following company and have the wires out so as to provide connectivity with the datalogger terminals.

Make: Digi-Key
Model: WM4103-ND (Right angle)
WM4003-ND (Straight)
You should be able to purchase them through http://www.digi-key.com

73 - The CXLDK digital interface card is only giving data on request. How can one then be sure that the samples are taken at regular intervals (especially in combination with windows)?

The CXLDK Card works in Polled Mode. Everytime you send a "G", it sends a 10-byte data packet back. Because you know that the maximum sampling rate is 200 Hz, you can control your softwrae to send "G"s at regular intervals (>5 msec)

74 - What are the dimensions of CXLDK card? What I am looking for specifically are the card dimensions, hole spacing, connector placement, and the like for incorporating the card into a design.

Card dimensions: 3in X 2.4in
Hole spacing: 2.6in X 2.0 in
Position of the center of DB9 connector: 1 in from one corner.
Position of the Pin 1 of the accelerometer connector: 0.44in from one end.

78 - Can the AD128 data logging system provide for logging data directly from the ADXL202EB evaluation board as it can from the crossbow packaged accelerometers?

The ADXL202EB provides PWM outputs, but the AD128 can accept only analog voltage inputs (0-5V). If you can convert these PWM signal outputs from ADXL202EB into 0-5V, then you can directly interface with AD128.

396 - I have been looking and experimenting on the packet rate of the MICA2 motes for quite some time. I have concluded that given the current MAC layer of TinyOS a mote can transmit about 8 to 10 packet/second. There is an advertised speed on the TinyOS website claming 53 pkts/sec max rate. At first I believed that this is on a per mote basis; however, it seems more logical that this number is not the speed of a single mote but the amount of packets/second a TinyOS network can handle with infinite number of motes. Is that correct?

The 53packets/sec is the theoretical maximum.

To make your mote achieve 50-53packets/sec, set the MAC delay to 0. There are plans to expose this via a "MacControl" interface in the future.

With more than 1 mote, you should be able to saturate the channel with no problem with TinyOS 1.1.3. We have had others confirm this.

402 - I am looking for wireless temperature acquisition device that can operate in the enviroment of 250 degree C. The device should able to record the temperature in a vacumn chamber thus it should be wireless. Please advise if your MICA motes can do this job.

Temperature sensors are available that can read this value. The problem is the MICA motes cannot survive that temperature. Vacuum should not be a problem (everything is solid state) as long as the batteries used are rated for vacuum. But, the antenna has to have visibility to the outside world. The older types of vacuum furnaces I am familiar with have quartz windows or some similar RF transparent feature that the radio waves can exit from. We would have to have more info on what kind of furnace you are using.

This application will be problematic for anyone, since the customer is trying to use components (pcb's, silicon parts in epoxy casings, and solder) that usually melt or burn up at 250 deg C.

424 - We are designing signal conditioning for various sensors and we need to know the output impedance. Your specification sheet identifies Output Loading. It looks the same output impedance although I've never see it expressed along with capacitance in nF. Is it the same thing?

Output loading resistance (Rl) normally refers to the minimum load you should have on the sensor output to avoid creating voltage devider. The output loading capacitance (Cl) is the maximum capacitance you can have on the sensor output. If your load capacitance exceeds the recommended value, you may not get the full bandwidth of the device.

430 - Could motes withstand EXTREME low temperatures (-180C)? Even if they are inoperative, could they wake up when temperature comes back in operating range. Could they resist a lot of thermal cycles, -180 at night and +something at daytime. How low can it go?

We have tested motes only down to -20C. I don't think the electronic components used are rated for temperatures below -55C. Also, the battery would be a main limiting factor for sub-zero temperatures.

433 - According the format I could parse first part of the GPS packet as follow: 24 47 50 47 47 41 2C converts to $GPGGA, But I don't know how to translate the rest of data: 32 33 35 39 34 37 2E 39 39 39 2C 2C 2C 2C 2C 30 2C 30 30 2C 2C 2C 4D 2C 2C 2C 2C 30 30 30 30 2A 33 32 0D 0A

Under the NMEA-0183 standard, all characters used are printable ASCII text (plus carriage return and line feed). The data is transmitted in the form of sentences in which each sentence starts with a "$", a two letter talker ID, a three letter sentence ID, followed by a number of data fields separated by commas, and terminated by an optional checksum, and a carriage return/line feed.

A sentence may contain up to 82 characters including the "$" and CR/LF. The optional checksum field consists of a "*" and two hex digits representing the exclusive OR of all characters between, but not including, the "$" and "*".

Your example is a GGA sentence, its readble ASCII format is:

$GPGGA,235947.999,,,,,0,00,,,M,,,,0000*32(CR)(LF)

This is NOT a valid GGA packet. (Maybe the GPS receiver is indoors or you don't have the antenna attached.)

A more complete sample is provided as follows:

GGA - Global Positioning System Fix Data

$GPGGA,123519,4807.038,N,01131.324,E,1,08,0.9,545.4,M,46.9,M, , *42

> 123519 Fix taken at 12:35:19 UTC
> 4807.038,N Latitude 48 deg 07.038' N
> 01131.324,E Longitude 11 deg 31.324' E
> 1 Fix quality: where 0 = invalid, 1 = GPS fix, 2 = DGPS fix
> 08 Number of satellites being tracked
> 0.9 Horizontal dilution of position
> 545.4,M Altitude, Metres, above mean sea level
> 46.9,M Height of geoid (mean sea level) above WGS84 ellipsoid
> (empty field) time in seconds since last DGPS update
> (empty field) DGPS station ID number
> *42 (Optional) checksum in hexidecimal

Indeed, if data for a field is not available, the field is simply omitted, but the commas that would delimit it are still sent with no space between them. Since some fields are variable width, or may be omitted, the receiver should locate desired data fields by counting commas, rather than by character position within the sentence.

434 - Do you have a document that that maps Crossbow part names to descriptions that developers in the TinyOS community use? For example, what's the difference between a MIB510 and a MIB500? How does a mote relate to an MRP400 and MPR500? I think this would be a valuable resource for everyone. Thanks.

Crossbow has a "Smart-Dust Product Information Guide" at our website at Support>Application Notes (http://www.xbow.com/Support/Support_pdf_files/XBOW_Smart_Dust_ProductInfoGuide.pdf).

In addition to matching Crossbow's part names to the names used by the TinyOS developers, it has pictures and a high-level description of the products. It's categorized by sensor/data acquisition cards, motes, and gateways.

457 - I just bought an MIB600 and want to know how to assign an IP address to it.

The MIB600 has an IP address of 0.0.0.0 so it uses DHCP to get its address assigned by the LAN server. You can assign it a fixed IP address using a utility called DeviceInstaller available from www.lantronix.com.

458 - What power supply do I need with the MIB510, MIB600 and Stargate?

The AC adapter provided with MIB510 and MIB600 is PSA05A-050.
Available here.

You need about 5V @ 1A (max). They also offer European version, model # PSA05E-050.
Available here.

The Stargate wall adapter model is GT-A81051-0505UW2 from Globtek.
Available here.

459 - I'd like to know that are the photoconductors on the MICA sensorboard originally designed for sensing continuous changing illuminance or just designed for sensing distinct state of the illuminance such as light on/off?

The photo sensor is not just On-Off type, it can also sense the change in light intensity. You are probably correct, these are not the most accurate photo sensors. You can get the details regarding these photo sensors from the following page.
http://www.clairex.com/ Model, CL94L.

460 - I note that the MIB600 has an "umbilical" connector (J11) for the mote. Do you have any details about the pinout?

J11 connector pin out details are below:
Pin 1 GND
Pin 2 RESET
Pin 3 UART_RX
Pin 4 SPI_CLK
Pin 5 VCC
Pin 6 UART_TXD

461 - How do I set the duty cycle of the MICA2 motes?

The duty cycle must be hard coded into the application. For example if you go to the apps directory under c:/tinyos/cygwin/opt/tinyos-1.x/contrib/xbow/apps/XsensorMTS300 and select the Xsensor MTS300 directory you will see a file named "TestSensorM.nc". Open this file and scroll through the code until you get to the following line.

"call Timer.start(TIMER_REPEAT, 1000)"

This line dictates how often the mote responds in milliseconds. The default for the above line is 1000 milliseconds. By modifying this line you can change the response time or duty cycle.

462 - Are they any shortcut commands that I can use to eliminate typing "mib510,com1" each time I install to a mote.

You will need to go into your MakeXbowlocal file and insert the following statements:

For MIB510:
DEFAULT_PROGRAM=mib510
MIB510=comX

For MIB600:
EFAULT_PROGRAM=eprb
EPRB=IP address

463 - What are the default port settings for the MIB600.

We recommmend downloading and using the Lantronix drivers as described in the user manual. However, if you are manually configuring your MIB600 or are unable to download the drivers the following settings apply.

115kbps for ISP programming
57.2kbps for mote serial ports

464 - How do I change the duty cycle in Surge for the motes?

For Surge you will need to edit the "Surge.h" file. In there you will see the following:

INITIAL_TIMER_RATE = 1024 * 8,


If you changed the "8" to a "60" it would transmit every 60 seconds.

465 - What is the current draw of the MIB600?


Normal operation will use about 200mA with a maximum of 300mA.

466 - What are the current draw specs from the sensors on the MTS420 sensor board?

1. Acceleration
Device: Analog Devices ADXL202
Current draw: 0.6 mA
Data sheet link: http://www.analog.com/UploadedFiles/Data_Sheets/53728567227477ADXL202E_a.pdf

2. Humidity
Device: Sensirion SHT11
Current draw: 0.028 mA (average), 0.55 mA (measuring), 0.3 micro-amp (sleep)
Data sheet link: http://www.sensirion.com/en/pdf/Datasheet_SHT1x_SHT7x.pdf

3. Barometric Pressure
Device: Intersema MS5534A
Current draw: 5 micro-amp (average), 1 mA (during conversion), 2.5 micro-amp (standby)
Data sheet link: http://www.intersema.ch/site/technical/files/ms5534.pdf

4. Ambient Light Sensor
Device: TAOS TSL2550
Current draw: 0.35 mA (active), 10 micro-amp (power-down, sleep)
Data sheet link: http://www.taosinc.com/images/product/document/tsl2550-e58.pdf

5. GPS Module
Device: Leadtek 9546 with the SiRF StarIIe/LP chipset
Current draw: 60 mA
Data sheet link: http://www.leadtek.com/datasheet/gps-oem-module.pdf

467 - How do I navigate through folders in Cygwin? What are some basic commands?

Some Cygwin commands are similar to DOS commands. Examples of some commands that you may need are located below.

cd - Change directory
cd .. - move down one directory
ls - List all of the files or folders in a directory
mkdir - Make a new directory
cat - Display all of the contents of a file

For example typing "cat blink.nc" would display the blink.nc file in Cygwin. Alternatively, typing "cd program files" would select the program files directory if it was an availalbe option in that directory.

468 - Where can I find the user manual or a basic overview of the Cricket motes that you offer?

The Cricket was developed by MIT and is being sold by Crossbow. You can find the user manual, a general overview and the software at the following link.

http://cricket.csail.mit.edu/

469 - What is the maximum range of the Cricket mote?

Cricket's radio runs at a frequency of 433 MHz, with the default transmit power level and antennas it can provide a range of about 30 meters indoors when there are no obstacles. The maximum ultrasound range is 10.5 meters when the listener and the beacon are facing each other and there are no obstacles between them. Every indoor environment varies widely, so your range may not be as high.

470 - I am trying to set up Hyperterminal to communicate with the motes, however I seem to be receiving strange characters instead of data packets. Did I set up my communication properly?

The data packets sent by Motes are in the binary format. HyperTerminal wont be able decode these binary packets. We recommend that you use an app like XServe or terminal programs such as ProComm as described in the Getting Started Guide.

471 - In your MPR/MIB User Manual you list calculations for RSSI value which include some constants for the 900, 433 and 315MHz motes. What is the constant for the MicaZ?

The constant for the MicaZ is 45 per the Chipcon 2420 Data Sheet.

473 - I have an SPKIT420 and am using it with the Orinoco gold card. When using Orinoco gold PC card, the system hangs up. Please help me in details to fix this problem.

The following instructions are to configure Stargate to use the Orinoco Gold WiFi Card.

1) Type the following three commands at the prompt after booting up and logging in:

a) cd /etc/pcmcia
b) mv host* old/
c) mv old/wlan* .

2) Re-start the Stargate by powering it down and switching it on again. You should be able to use the Orinoco card after this.

474 - Can you tell me which compact flash WiFi card is used in the advanced kit? Also, are drivers written for it in Linux (if needed?)

With advanced kit, we ship the Ambicom Compact Flash card.

HostAP should support any card with a Prism2/2.5/3 chipset. Newer versions of HostAP may also support some non-prism cards. Lots of examples of Prism cards are listed at:
http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/Linux.Wireless.drivers.802.11b.html#Prism2

475 - Do you have a list of webcams that are useable on stargate?

These are the 2 webcams that are tested on stargate.
* Logitech Pro 4000 uses the Philips "pwc" drivers. I upgraded Linux 2.4.19 with pwc driver version 8.10 to get Pro 4000 support on the Stargate.
* Creative WebCam Pro uses the ov511 drivers. I used the driver that came with 2.4.19.

476 - Could you give me some detail about what is entailed with the Lithium-Ion battery support?

We recommend Ultralife UBP563450 Li-Ion battery. This can be purchased from Mouser Electronics.

477 - The stargate does not have compiler hence I can't compile and install newer version of wlan to stargate. What could be the solution for this problem?

The compiler tools are supplied with the Stargate support CD shipped with each Stargate order. Please make sure that you have received it. Also below is a list of commands that the customer can use to configure the wireless card.
__________________

iwconfig wlan0 essid Crossbow
iwconfig wlan0 mode Managed
iwconfig wlan0 channel 3
iwconfig wlan0 enc 1234-abcd-1234-abcd-1234-abcd-12
ifconfig wlan0 10.1.1.175 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.1.1.255

478 - Does the Stargate board provide control over the CPU voltage or clock rate to lower the operating power?

The power management with sleep/idle mode is available. We haven't yet implemented it since we are waiting for details from Intel. You can get more details from PXA255 processor webpage. http://www.intel.com/design/pca/prodbref/252780.htm

479 - What I need is a script to run the program at a time interval and how to insert that script into the runtime kernal of the stargate?

To run repeated jobs on any Unix-type system (such as Stargate running Linux), you can use a service called as "cron". The following link gives you more information.
https://panel.dreamhost.com/kbase/index.cgi?area=2506

I am not sure why you would want to include this into the kernel, but you can check the following URL for instructions on how to do it.
http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Module-HOWTO/

480 - Is there a way to test the functionality of my webcam while using the Stargate?

Under the xbow/apps directory you will find a "webcam" folder that contains an executable file. This program will allow you to take pictures with your webcam and help you with the setup.

In addition, if you feel that your web camera is still not functioning properly we would recommend that you plug it into another computer using the USB cable to verify that you have a proper connection.

481 - Do you know of any information regarding tests or measurements done on the current drawn by the Stargate in different levels of activity? Any information would be appreciated.

One customer has reported his results and made them available on stargate-help email list. We've copied his email here for convenience.

TEST SETUP:
* Stargate mainboard
* No daughter card
* PlatformX 7.2 w/ local mods and custom kernel
* With and without Netgear MA701 802.11b CF card
* Powered via the 3.3V connector with a 4.5V supply
* Current measured at the 4.5V supply with a digital
multimeter (~1 sec update rate)
* The figures below are averages of 3-4 independent
measurements (the board was rebooted after each
individual measurement -- so this took some time
to compile :-)


RESULTS CATEGORIZED BY TASK

Below heading the data appears in the following order:
Netgear (Y/N); CPU Speed (MHz); Bus Speed (MHz); Meas. current (mA)

BOOTLDR
N; 400; 200; 175
Y; 300; 200; 235

KERNEL
N; 400; 200; 208
Y; 400; 200; 265

BUSY
N; 400; 200; 235
N; 400; 100; 215
N; 100; 100; 185
N; 200; 100; 181
N; 100; 50; 136

Y; 400; 200; 420
Y; 400; 100; 390
Y; 300; 100; 370
Y; 200; 100; 361
Y; 100; 50; 323

IDLE
N; 400; 200; 71
N; 400; 100; 63
N; 300; 100; 64
N; 200; 100; 62
N; 100; 50; 58

Y; 400; 200; 255
Y; 400; 100; 250
Y; 300; 100; 248
Y; 200; 100; 246
Y; 100; 50; 243

SUSPEND
N; N/A; N/A; 3.6
Y; N/A; N/A; 125

--------------
NOTES:
* BOOTLDR figures = current drawn while bootloader running -- before kernel execution begins

* KERNAL figures = rough estimate of current drawn during kernel initialization (current varies wildly moment to moment) -- before init runs

* BUSY figures = current drawn during ~10 sec CPU- and memory-intensive task

* IDLE figures = current drawn while the system is idle for ~15 sec

* SUSPEND figures = current drawn while Stargate is suspended (NOTE: verified to be independent of CPU/Bus speed)

* I wasn't able to reliably characterize current draw while writing to flash. My best wag is that it's between 85 and 100% of the "busy" figures. I think the best way to measure this would be to upload a new kernel/root image and wait for the flash write to occur.

* Local PX7.2 modIfications include addition of local software and daemons, disabling some PX7.2 services, etc.

* Local kernel modifications include making USB into a module, enabling various other kernel stuff (including the ability to change CPU/bus speed), hacking in a /proc/sys/pm/sleep_time, etc

* Changing CPU speed achieved via /proc/sys/cpu/0/speed interface (NOTE: This worked for me despite warnings
in documentation and code)

* SUSPEND achieved via /proc/sys/pm/suspend

* A rule of thumb (based on limited data) is that the system is about half as fast at 100/50 MHz as
it is at 400/200MHz

* The Ambicom WL1100C-CF draws about 15 mA less current across the board (NOTE: this was only a quick test at 400/200 MHz)

* Adding a MICA2 mote adds about 10 mA across the board

482 - I bought a few Stargate's and they did not come with li-ion batteries. I'm wondering if I can connect the daughter board to AA size batteries? And how many volts does it require to when both the stargate and daughter boards are used?

The Stargate kits do not ship with Li-Ion battery. The daughter car needs at least 5V supply, so you can power it with 4 AA batteries. The card has a regulator built in, so can handle up to 6V supply.

483 - Do I have to download anything else on stargate to run the java GUI applications?


You cannot run any GUI applications on Stargate since it does not have a display to output video.

484 - I would like to power my stargate using battery power. Do you know what the maximum current draw is?

If you are using Wi-Fi the max. current draw is around 500mA. If you aren't using Wi-Fi, then your max. current draw should be around 375mA with a 5V supply. Please note that the Stargate cannot accept more than a 5V input without damage.

485 - Do you have any recommendations for powering the Stargate with battery or solar power.

It is possible to power the Stargate with battery power. The following is an example of a typical battery or solar setup.

Some of our customers have used the battery is manufactured from Enersys. They have a selection of different sizes and voltages. Please note that in this particular setup, the customer used a 12V battery and stepped it down to 5V. The Stargate cannot accept more than 5V input without sustaining damage.

487 - I need some information about the physical layer of the MICA2 and MICA2DOT motes. Is the method between the MICA2DOT and MICA2 the same? Are there any documents on such issues?

Both the MICA2 and the MICA2DOT use the same modulation and encoding method: frequency shift keying (FSK) and Manchester encoding. Pages 14 through 16 of the Chipcon data sheet for the CC1000 (see http://www.chipcon.com/files/CC1000_Data_Sheet_2_1.pdf) is one reference on Manchester encoding, among other things.

488 - Which USB to serial converters can I use for a laptop running on my Windows PC?

Crossbow Technology, Inc. recommends you use the following USB to Serial converters:

Manufactuer: Keyspan
Product: USB PDA Adaptor
Model Number: USA19H
Compatibility: Win NT, Win 98, 2000 and XP

Manufactuer: Belkin
Product: USB PDA Adaptor
Model Number: F5U109
Compatibility: Win NT, Win 98, 2000 and XP

These adapters have been tested at Crossbow.

489 - How does an antenna affect the transmission range and reception of the Motes?

Antennas make a tremendous difference in TX range and RF reception.

For example, the 916 MHz band MICA2/DOTs have been tested to transmit up to ~500 feet (~165m) outdoors with a 1/2 wave dipole antenna, the RF power set to 5 dBm (maximum TX power), 1m+ off the ground, line of sight. The 433 and 315 MHz band Motes will transmit about 2x that distance. (Note: MICA2 and MICA2DOTs come in three different frequency bands: 315, 433, 916 MHz.)

If you use a 1/4 wave whip antenna with a correct ground plane, you can also achieve the same distances. If you don't use a ground plane, then expect about half the distance. I don't know the TX range using reduced height or splatch type antenna.

Very important issues to also consider are the legal frequencies, transmission power, and duty cycle for your area/country.

490 - What is the maximum sampling rate available on MICA ADC channels?

It all depends:

5Ksamples/sec on a single channel is straight foward using standard TOS ADCC.nc module

10KSamples/sec (100usec conversion) on a single channel should be do-able (not tested on TOSv1.1 but was ok under 0.6)

18KSamples/sec is about the maximum one can do by writing a special ADCC.nc module and disabling radio interrupts.

-All times assume storing ADC data to RAM and no processing

-A MICA2 (CPU clock=7.xMHz) vs MICA2DOT (CPU clk=4MHz) helps only in giving more processing cycles between conversions and faster handling of interrupt. The ADC conversion is done independently of the CPU.

-Adding channels slows things down a bit at the higher rates unless a special ADCC.nc module is written. So 8 channels would be about 1.2KHz (=10KSamples/sec aggregate)

491 - What kind of power over Ethernet (PoE) switch does the MIB600 support? What't the difference between the two?

The MIB600CA supports the mid-span PoE type switches. There are two types of 802.af Ethernet switches: mid-span and end-span. Mid-span refers to the class of devices that only provide power which put power on the unused pairs. End-span refers to integrated PoE/ethernet switches, and they inject power on the data pairs.

492 - Where can I obtain the details of the 51-pin connector used on MICA/MICA2 Mote boards?

The details of the 51-Pin connector on Mica Mote Board are as follows:

Make: Hirose
Model: DF9-51P-1V(54)
Mating Part No: DF9-51S-1V(54)

Electronics parts such as DigiKey carries this product.

493 - What is the uisp command to read the fuses of the ATmega128 processor on the MICA2 and MICA2DOTs?

Type in a Cygwin window the following command

uisp -dprog=mib510 -dserial=/dev/ttyS# -dpart=ATmega128 --rd_fuses

where # = 0 for COM1, 1 for COM2, 2 for COM3, etc., assuming that the serial port numbering for you computer begins with zero.

The output from this command will look similar to the following:

Firmware Version: 2.1
Atmel AVR ATmega128 is found.

Fuse Low Byte = 0xff
Fuse High Byte = 0xd9
Fuse Extended Byte = 0xff
Calibration Byte = 0x00 -- Read Only
Lock Bits = 0xff
BLB12 -> 1
BLB11 -> 1
BLB02 -> 1
BLB01 -> 1
LB2 -> 1
LB1 -> 1

For the MIB600 the command would be as follows:

uisp -dprog=stk500 -dhost=10.1.1.239 -dpart=ATmega128 --rd_fuses

Where the -dprog setting is changed to "stk500" and -dhost specifies your IP address.
 

494 - I want to know what is the mmcx connector type which is on the mote board(400CB). It looks like male connector but I think it is female.

The MMCX connectors are more referred as Jack and Plug rather than Male-Female. The connector on MICA2 mote is a Jack (or Female gender).

495 - Can you provide some references to Robot/Motor control using MICA motes?

Several research groups have already implemented this type for Robot control (eg: Notre Dame, UC Berkeley). So, some of the TinyOS code has already been written for this motor controller. I think it was called COTSBOTS. Here's couple of references.
http://www.nd.edu/~mmcmicke/micabot.htm
http://www-robotics.usc.edu/~robomote/

497 - I need to know what PCB Receptacle Pins are used with MICA2DOT? Do you know part number of these pins?

These PCB receptacle pins are ELPAKCO 4010 pins. Their web-site is http://www.elpakco.com/

498 - I want to provide electric power to the MICA2 motes through J4 connector. Can you tell me the type of the jack and the receptacle of J4?

The vendor and connector part number for J4 connector is Molex, PN 53261-0290.

The mating connector can be built using the following parts:
Molex (http://www.molex.com)
51021-0020
in conjunction with
50079-8000 for reel
50079-8100 for bag.

499 - One of my motes is giving me this error when uisp tries to identify it: "Probably the wiring is incorrect or target might be damaged." What is the problem?

The error "... target might be damaged" appears if the ATmega fuses have been set incorrectly. i.e. if an unsuccessful attempt was made to program the motes (using low battery or uisp issues etc), the fuses sometimes get set incorrectly. In such cases, you need JTAG module to re-configure the fuses back to normal. In certain conditions, the processor gets damaged to an extent that it needs replacement. The first thing you can do is to check how the fuses are set using using "uisp -dprog=dapa -rd_fuses" command. The result should look like:

$ uisp -dprog=dapa -dlpt=1 --rd_fuses
pulse
Atmel AVR ATmega128 is found.
Fuse Low Byte = 0xff
Fuse High Byte = 0xd9
Fuse Extended Byte = 0xff
Calibration Byte = 0xa2 -- Read Only
Lock Bits = 0xff
BLB12 -> 1
BLB11 -> 1
BLB02 -> 1
BLB01 -> 1
LB2 -> 1
LB1 -> 1

500 - What happens when two motes are too close together? If there is inter-mote interference, how can it be fixed? Is there a minimum distance between the motes? If so what is it?

Mote interference will occur if the motes are within about 2 feet of each other. This is direct coupling from VCO and tuning components from one board to another. This makes the minimum distance about 3 feet apart. Some proctection can be realized if the units are placed in an RF shielded enclosure, but some leakage will always occur by directly coupling into the antenna.

501 - Is there multi-path interference? what happens if motes transmit inside a small metal enclosure?

There is ALWAYS multipath interference (brought to us by the makers of space and time). We have conducted several experiments with transmitting in small metal enclosures (metal boxes with interiors ranging from 2 cubic feet to 1 cubic foot). Two units can be made to communicate in such an environment, but it is best to reduce their output power significantly to avoid front-end saturation and coupling problems. How much signal power you will have to determine experimentally - it will be a function of the geometry of your enclosure. (In an enclosure, it isn't multipath so much as it is RF standing wave modes, as in a microwave oven).

502 - Can the motes transmit though a thin layer of steel or Aluminum?

No, the units will not transmit through a solid conductor of any thickness. Screen wire is easier to transmit through with some attenuation, but it will be a function of the spacing of the holes and the distance away.

503 - Is the I2C bus on both the MICA2 and the MICA2DOT available? Would it be possible to, instead of communicating via the radio, use the I2C bus for inter-mote communication?

The I2C bus (like SPI bus) is designed for controlling the peripheral hardware components on the motes. I don't think it has anything to do with the radio. If the question if you can you use I2C bus and still communicate over wireless, the answer is NO. However, you can stack motes over one another and communicate with each other, but then it won't be wireless anymore. The I2C bus although exists on both MICA2 and MICA2DOT, it may not be accessible on MICA2DOTs.

504 - Could you provide a chart that tells me how much current is drawn at the different Mote Power settings? eg. how much current is drawn at -10dBm?

For the MICA2, the power consumption is as follows:
at 900 MHz
Pout = -20 dBm I = 8.6 mA
Pout = -5 dBm I = 13.8 mA
Pout = 0 dBm I = 16.5 mA
Pout = 5 dBm I = 25.4 mA

for 433 MHz
Pout = -20 dBm I = 5.3 mA
Pout = -5 dBm I = 8.9 mA
Pout = 0 dBm I = 10.4 mA
Pout = 5 dBm I = 14.8 mA
Pout = 10 dBm I = 26.7 mA

505 - What is the maximum & minimum supply voltage that can be connected to the VCC pin on the MICA2 and MICA2DOT?

The MICA2 and MICA2DOT motes should be supplied between 2.7 to 3.3 VDC. The voltage range guarantees that the components, such as the CC1000 radio and ATMega128L microprocessor, perform within specification. But we have also seen that these work as low as 2.4 V.
 

506 - Where can I find additional information on how to interpret the pin layout of the MICA2 and MICA2DOT?

The schematics for the MICA2 and the MICA2DOT motes are located in the Section 8 of the "MPR-Mote Process Radio Board, MIB-Mote Interface/Programming Board User's Manual." This manual is located on our website at http://www.xbow.com/Support/Support_pdf_files/MPR-MIB_Series_User_Manual_7430-0021-05_A.pdf.

507 - Is it possible to connect an external device directly to a MICA2 or a MICA2DOT. Do you have to connect it via a sensor board? If so, which sensor board(s)?

While it is possible to connect directly to an MPR (MICA2 or MICA2DOT) board, it is NOT recommended. Crossbow recommends the following boards:

- MICA2: MTS101 and MDA300
- MICA2DOT: MDA500

Please refer to the detailed data sheets from below.
http://www.xbow.com/Products/productsdetails.aspx?sid=63

For more information about how to physically attach a 3rd party sensor to an MDA300 or MDA500 sensor board please see the MTS/MDA Mote User Manual which can be found on our website using the link below.

http://www.xbow.com/Support/Support_pdf_files/MTSMDA_Series_User_Manual_7430-0020-03_A.pdf

508 - Does MICA mote support such In-circuit debugging such as JTAG ICE, if so, where can I buy those develop kits and how can I get it set up for the MICA motes.

MICA motes do support JTAG debugging. For the development kits and further details please refer to
http://www.avrfreaks.net/Tools/showtools.php?ToolID=200

509 - What's the difference between the light sensor on the MTS101, MTS300, MTS310s and the photo-sensitive light sensor on the MTS400, MTS420?

The MTS101/300/310 light sensor is a CdSe photocell. It is most sensitive to wavelengths of 690 nm. The MTS400/420 light sensor has two photodiodes and a built in ADC to provide an effective 12-bit dynamic range. It has a more flat response to wavelenths 400 to 1000 nm. Light in this region is where plant's photosynthetic activity is highest. So we call it a photo-sensitive light sensor.

511 - What kind of battery does Crossbow use with its MICA2DOT?

We ship a Panasonic 3 volt lithium-ion coin cell (CR2354). The datasheet web link is:
http://rocky.digikey.com/WebLib/Panasonic/Web%20data/CR2330,%20CR2354.pdf

512 - Can you give me the datasheet of J1 in the schematic of MIB Programming Board?

The J1 is a 51-pin connector offered by Hirose. The part number is DF9-51 (S,P)-1V(54). You should be able to access the data sheet from below:
http://www.hirose.co.uk/

513 - What are the minimum pins required to be connected to a MICA2DOT in order to re-program the processor?

You will need RESETN, SPI_CK, UART_TXC, UART_RXC in addition to PWR and GND to program the MICA2DOT.

514 - Your new MICAz Motes operate using the 802.15.4 platform, however we are also using 802.11 (Wi-Fi) for other applications. Can the two platforms coexist? Will there be interferance?

In regards to the coexistance of 802.11b and Zigbee, we have done some testing of the two together.

IEEE 802.15.4 spec Appendix E discusses compatiblity/coexistence with WiFi
(802.11x) and other (Bluetooth). Note that 802.15.4 channels 25 and 26 are free and clear of the WiFi channels. Those would be the best ones to use to avoid potential RF interference.

In general, MICAz (802.15.4) signal (with bandwith of 2 MHz) will look like a
narrow band noise source to the 22 MHz wide WiFi channel. WiFi's modulation
scheme is quite robust against narrow band interferers.

And conversly, a WiFi signal will look like a wideband noise to the MICAz.
In the later case, the MICAz Clear Channel Assessment feature will help by
backing off transmission until the WiFi packet is finished.

Without testing, it is hard to say exactly what kind of performance hit your application will take. If a specific problem does occur, users can move operating channel of the
MICAz to channels 25 or 26. Or move the WiFi (or both) to another channel, if possible.

515 - Are there hardware design diagrams similar to http://webs.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/hardware/hardware.html available for the MICA motes?

You can download the MTS sensor board and MPR processor board manuals below.
http://www.xbow.com/Support/Support_pdf_files/MTS-MDA_Series_Users_Manual.pdf
http://www.xbow.com/Support/Support_pdf_files/MPR-MIB_Series_Users_Manual.pdf

516 - Do your MOTE-KITS have the capability of processing acoustics (Human Voice) energy, and if not can they configured to do so?

MICA sensor boards (MTS310CA) have on-board sounder and microphone that can emit and detect sound signals. You will have to then implement your algorithms to process this data.

The specifications of the sounder and microphone is available in the following manual.
http://www.xbow.com/Support/Support_pdf_files/MTSMDASeriesUserManual.pdf

517 - Could you recommend a good power supply and/or power supply connector for the MIB510?

If you had purchased MIB510 programming board from us, you should have received the power supply adapter.
The model number of this is PSA05A-050 made by Phihong.

518 - Can I directly connect a serial cable to a MICA2DOT mote? Size is a concern for us, so we don't want use the programming board for serial communication with a mote.

You can build your own cable to do that, but we don't supply one for this purpose. Moreover the MICA2DOT does not have a reliable high speed UART and hence can not be used as a base station. You should instead use MICA2 as a base station by plugging it into the MIB programming board.

519 - I would like to know the length a wire would need to be for a MICA2 antenna.

The length of the antenna would depend on the radio frequency you have. Please refer to the following MPR-MIB User's Manual for the antenna details.
http://www.xbow.com/Support/manuals.htm

520 - For the MICA2DOT (Processor & Radio Platform MPR500CA) and the MICA2 (Processor & Radio Platform MPR400CB), could you kindly let me know which radio device (supplier and part number)was being used?

The Radio for MICA2 and MICA2DOT is from a supplier called Chipcon and the model number is CC1000. You should be able to obtain more details from http://www.chipcon.com/

521 - Can you give me a tip on how to set GPIO pins on the MICA2 or MICA2DOT?

Here's an example to set and then clear a GPIO pin. (Note the threshold logic is HIGH = Battery voltage, and LOW = 0 V.)

The example below are TOS commands to turn on (SET) and off (CLR) a temperature sensor:

TOSH_SET_TEMP_CTL_PIN();

and

TOSH_CLR_TEMP_CTL_PIN();

Look in other module files (ends with M.nc) directory sensorboards/ for more examples.

523 - I have the Mote Interface/Programming Board. But I met some problems when I tried to plug the MICA2DOT into the MIB510 Serial Interface Board because the pins on Interface Board are not uniform with those on MICA2DOT. What is the possible way to plug?

Yes, it is possible to plug MICA2DOT into MIB510, it is a little bit tricky.
The MICA2DOT should be plugged onto the bottom side of the MIB board as shown in the TinyOS getting started guide below.
http://www.xbow.com/Support/manuals.htm

The MICA2DOT can be plugged in only one orientation and it is just a matter of matching the Pin pattern until you have a fit.

524 - What is the energy consumption level of sensing in Mote? Could you give the specification of Mote showing this energy consumption level info?

Regarding the energy consumption level in the mote, please refer to the battery life calculator below.
http://www.xbow.com/Support/Support_pdf_files/PowerManagement.xls

525 - What is the max. voltage a MICA2 mote will tolerate? Can I put a 3.6V battery on it?

The MICA2 can tolerate up to 3.7V. Beyond this you run into the risk of frying the components.

526 - I am writing a program for MICA2, it outputs sensor value to UART if it is attached to the MIB510 programming board else it will output to the radio. In the program, how do I check if the MICA2 board is attached to the MIB 510 programming board?

There is no good way to do this via the hardware because the MICA2 does not see any difference whether it is plugged into MIB510 or sitting stand-alone.

However, you can send commands from the host PC over RS-232 and see if the MICA2 plugged in. If you get acknowledgement from UART, that mean the MICA2 is attached to the MIB510, if not it is stand-alone.

527 - Can you tell me which is the recommended external antenna for use with the MICA motes? Do you know which is better, the 1/4 wave whip (Linx ANT-916-JJB-RA) or the "can" antenna (Linx ANT-916-JJB-RA/SA)?

The recommended antenna for MICA motes with 916MHz radio (MPR300CB) is "can" model.

The recommended antenna for MICA2 motes (MPR400/410/420) is 1/4 wave whip.

The specifications and recommendations are listed in the support/user manual section of our website. Please see the MPR-MIB Mote Hardware Users Manual.

528 - Can you tell me which A/D is used in the MICA2 motes?

The A/D used on MICA2 is part of Atmel 128 processor. Please refer to ATmega data sheet for further details.

529 - How do we test the MTS310CA function properly? How do we read data from the sensor boards for the different sensors like the temperature,sounder,magnetometer,etc on the MTS310CA?

There are several different applications available in TinyOS distribution to test sensors.
Crossbow has made a set of test applications (apps) prefixed with "XSensor." You can download these apps which are contained within a zip files (xbow.tgz) at http://www.xbow.com/Support/downloads.htm. Clicking on "Click here to download Crossbow's Mote firmware."

The Xsensor apps require the use of the text user-interface, Xlisten. It is also available on that same page. The link is just above the link for the Mote firmware.

530 - My coin cell batteries are losing power when not installed? Is this normal?

The coin cell batteries will drain power if they are stored in an ESD bag or if they are in constant contact with each other. In order to store them properly, please separate all batteries from each other in order to preserve their voltage.

531 - What specific channel does the MICAz operate on? Can I change the frequency?

The MICAz currently operates at the 2.405 GHz to 2.4835 GHz range. You can change the MICAz channel by editing your MakeXbowlocal file (in tinyos/cygwin/opt/tinyos-1.x/contrib/xbow/apps/) with the example below. Note that the example is using 802.15.4 Channel 25.


-------------------------
#########################################################
#
# ZigBee/802.15.4 Channel Selection
# CHANNEL_11 = 2405 MHz CHANNEL_12 = 2410 MHz CHANNEL_13 = 2415 MHz
# CHANNEL_14 = 2420 MHz CHANNEL_15 = 2425 MHz CHANNEL_16 = 2430 MHz
# CHANNEL_17 = 2435 MHz CHANNEL_18 = 2440 MHz CHANNEL_19 = 2445 MHz
# CHANNEL_20 = 2450 MHz CHANNEL_21 = 2455 MHz CHANNEL_22 = 2460 MHz
# CHANNEL_23 = 2465 MHz CHANNEL_24 = 2470 MHz CHANNEL_25 = 2475 MHz
# CHANNEL_26 = 2480 MHz
#
# NOTE: Channels 25 & 26 don't overlap with 802.11
#########################################################

CFLAGS +=-DCC2420_DEF_CHANNEL=25

#########################################################

532 - I have a MDA300 data acquisition board. I'm a little confused as to which is the correct driver folder in TinyOS. Should it be the value of SENSORBOARD be "mda300," or "mda300ca".

The correct directory and "SENSORBOARD" name in the applications' Makefile should be "mda300".

NOTE: If the red LED is always on, it means your MDA300 board is not tightly plugged onto MIB510.

533 - I have an MTS400 sensor card. In order to understand how to control and run the sensors I tried to use the apps/MicaWBVerify test applications. Is this is the right application to use, or should I look somewhere else?

The driver is tinyos/cygwin/opt/tinyos-1.x/contrib/xbow/tos/sensorboard/mts400.
The test app is in tinyos/cygwin/opt/tinyos-1.x/contrib/xbow/apps/XSensorMTS400.

NOTE: The application "MicaWBVerify" cannot be used to test Crossbow's MTS400/420 sensor boards.

534 - We have a custom application that we developed using Crossbow motes and would like to know what the maximum baud rate of the MIB600 is?


The Lantronix driver for the MIB600 is capable of a maximum of 115.2kbps.

535 - How many Cricket motes can operate at the same time?

The maximum number of Crickets that the software can support is 24 Crickets. There is no theoretical maximum number of Cricket motes that can operate at the same time using custom software, however you may receive interferance in the signal if the Cricket density is too high. The user manual which can be found on the product information page describes the minimum recommended spacing or density and suggestions for large networks. Please note that the maximum number of Cricket motes is a function of density not the quantity.

536 - What frequency do the ultrasonic sounder operate under and what are the specifications?

:
The sounders operate at 40kHz (plus or minus 1kHz) at 115db. The sensitivity is -67db.

537 - Could any one tell me if there is any application using the I2C conector for receiving digital signals. I'm unable to find an I2C module in TinyOS for MICA2.

The MTS400/420 weather board uses I2C to communicate with the Intersema pressure/temperature sensor.
You can find this code in:

sensorboards/micawb/MicaWbSwitchM.nc
platform/mica/I2CM.nc
system/I2CPacketM.nc

It is all based on the I2CPacket component which is a software "bit bang" interface that controls the two wire (clk/data) interface directly via pin low/high commands.

538 - The MICA2 has a power connector on the J4 location? Where can I find the corresponding connector?

The connectors can be found from Digi-Key and are part number WM1720-ND.

539 - Which MSP430 Microcontroller is used on the Telos Motes?


The F1611 is the version used on all Telos motes that Crossbow sells.

540 - How much current does the Cricket consume under normal operation?

The Cricket motes will consume approximately 12mA under normal operating conditions.

541 - What are the PIR and QUAD readings in Mote-View when using the MSP-SYS?

The PIR reading refers to the ADC count of the IR sensor and the QUAD reading refers to the side or quadrant that is being monitored (1-4).

542 - What do the quad values in the MSP system mean?

The values are reported in binary and determine the quadrant that detected movement. A breakdown of the possible values is as follows:

VALUE QUADS
1 = 1
2 = 2
3 = 2,1
4 = 3
5 = 3,1
6 = 3,2
7 = 3,2,1
8 = 4
9 = 4,1
10 = 4,2
11 = 4,2,1
12 = 4,3
13 = 4,3,1
14 = 4,3,2
15 = 4,3,2,1
31 = unable to determine exact quad

543 - Can the MICAz and TelosB communicate with each other?

The MICAz and TelosB boards operate on the same frequency (2.4GHz), however Crossbow does not currently offer any software that allows direct communication between the two boards.

557 - What are the operating ranges for the Wifi card that you offer with Stargate?

Outdoor line of sight ranges are:

Low power Wifi - Ambicom WL1100C-CF
-1640ft max @ 1 Mbps
- 820ft @ 11 Mbps

High power Wifi - SMC2532W-B
- 2722 ft max

558 - I used the command `usetos tinyos` but I get the following error: plateforme@plateforme1 ~ $ `usetos tinyos` bash: /etc/profile.d/tinyos.sh: No such file or directory How do I fix this and interoperate between TinyOS and MoteWorks.

This is due to the fact that we don’t provide /etc/profile.d/tinyos.sh with MoteWorks installer.
We assume the user has it from a previous install of TinyOS-1.x.
You will find the missing file in the attachment that needs to be copied to /etc/profile.d directory. 

560 - I want to use the XSniffer GUI with the MIB600 gateway but I always get an error message. The XSniffer works fine with MIB510 and MIB520 gateways. How can I get Xsniffer working with MIB600?

You need to do the following:

1) Using Lantronix Device Installer you need to change the baud rate of the second serial port (Channel 2) on the MIB600 to be 115200. This is because XSniffer runs at a faster speed and MIB600 needs to be configured to that.

2) Then you start XServe your local machine and have it connect to the MIB600.
`xserve –i=[MIB600's IP address]:10002`

3) Finally you need to start XSniffer and connect to the XServe running on your local machine at port 9001 (i.e. localhost 9001).

561 - How to parse meaningful data from the MTS310_results table for a MTS300 sensorboard and get meaningful data from a MTS310 sensorboard from the MTS300_results table?

Please refer to the XServe manual for the packet contents of XMTS300 and XMTS310 apps

562 - Is there a way to store both MTS310 and MTS300 data to the database, different tables, at the same time? I was thinking of opening two applications of MoteView and trying to set one on the USB gatewayand one on the Serial gateway.

Yes, absolutely. The XMeshBase can receive data from multiple sensortypes and log them into their respective table. i.e. if you have a network of nodes that are programmed with XMTS300_xxx_yy.exe and XMTS310_xxx_yy.exe, the data from these will get logged to mts300_results and mts310_results tables respectively. You don't need two separate gateways (just one XMeshBase as a base station node). 

564 - Flash Memory Access and Sleep current issues with MPR2600 OEM modules

Affected product: MPR2600CA, part number 8350-0382-03 (PCBA 8040-0382-05) and MPR2400CA part number 8350-0334-09 shipped in March and April of 2007.

Problem Description: A small percent of the MPR2600 OEM modules and MPR2400CA hang up during Flash memory access operation. This is seen as freeze-out during OTAP-enabled local programming with MoteConfig.

Who does this apply: If you received MPR2600 OEM module and MPR2400 shipments in March/April 2007 and are either using Serial Flash or OTAP feature with them.

Root Cause: The suspected root cause of the problem is the Flash memory chip. When the MPR2600's were converted to be RoHS compliant, the RoHS-compliant flash memory chip used had an erase time of 75ms vs the 12ms for the earlier part. This increased delay seems to cause the Flash access routines to time out. Another symptom is that sleep current increased by 13 microamps when using this slower Flash chip.

Corrective action taken:
1. ECO to Revise BOM of MPR2600, PCBA (8040-0382-05) to incorporate correct flash memory chip.
2. Screen all the OEM module based radio products for the max sleep current and eliminate shipment of the units with the wrong part.

Work-around for the affected products in the field:
1) Rename /MoteWorks/tos/platform/mica2/HPLFlash.nc to HPLFlash.orig.nc
2) Save HPLFlash.fix.nc from the attachments into /MoteWorks/tos/platform/mica2/
3) Rename this new HPLFlash.fix.nc to HPLFlash.nc
4) Installation Complete

If you are using MoteConfig to OTAP-enable the Motes, please download the OtapGold_micaz.exe from the attachment and save it to \MoteConfig\GoldenImage folder.

566 - XMesh Low Power Current issues in MoteWorks 2.0.F

Problem Description:
The XMesh Low Power (LP) apps compiled under MoteWorks 2.0.F draw 100-200 uA more current compared to earlier version of MoteWorks.

Root Cause:
The default route update interval gets set to 32 sec instead of 360 sec causing the radio to transmit more frequently. This is the result of a bug in the nesC compiler (version lower than 1.2.7) that mis-interprets uint32_t value for RUI.

Work-around/fix:
Use the updated object files from the attachment. The steps are:
1. Download the zip file from the attachment and unzip them.
2. Copy these unzipped files into /MoteWorks/tos/lib/XMeshBin folder.
3. Recompile your apps with 'route,lp' flag.

572 - What are the differences between Imote2s from Intel and Crossbow?

They are identical from the hardware perspective but they may differ in the software that is pre-loaded and the accessories they ship with.

Also, the Intel C++ tool suite is no longer available from Intel but may be available from Marvell. However, there is no easy download of that as of yet.

The good news is that in most cases you don’t need that C++ tool suite. The Imote2 software is compiled with gcc. The only component from that tool suite that is sometimes needed is “xflash” which is the tool to download code into the Imote2 via JTAG.

Now, if you have a Crossbow mote then it will come pre-programmed with a USB boot loader. In order to download TinyOS code into the Imote2, use “USBLoaderHost.exe –p build/imote2/main.bin.out”. So you can just use USB and don’t need JTAG at all.

If you have an Intel Imote2 or if the pre-loaded boot loader got damaged, then you can use either “xflash” or “jflashmm” (the latter is freely available) to restore the boot loader. we have provided the necessary software here:

<a href="
http://www.xbow.com/Support/wobjectDetail.aspx?id=50160000000KXVYAA4&type=Solution&page=0" target="_blank">
http://www.xbow.com/Support/wobjectDetail.aspx?id=50160000000KXVYAA4&type=Solution&page=0</a>


You will need the Imote2 interface/debug board (IIB2400 or Intel equivalent) and the Intel JTAG Cable (or equivalent) to perform the JTAG programming. Once you have restored the boot loader you can load code via USB as described above.

For alternatives to the above, see the following posts:
<a href="http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/intel-mote2-community/message/392" target="_blank">http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/intel-mote2-community/message/392</a>
<a href="
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/intel-mote2-community/message/393" target="_blank">http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/intel-mote2-community/message/393</a> 

573 - Crossbow states that its Motes can use mesh, star, and star-mesh hybrid topologies. The only topology that we know how to configure is the mesh topology (Xmesh). How can I configure Star, Hybrid Star and Mesh topologies in MoteWorks?

XMesh is not a topology, but a mesh routing protocol. it can support different topologies that are described.
- LP or HP nodes talking to a corresponding base station provide true mesh topology.
- HP nodes in conjunction with ELP nodes provide hybrid-star topology.
- ELP nodes directly talking to a HP base will provide Star topology.

Please refer to the XMesh manual for details on these various power modes (HP, LP and ELP).

576 - Where can I find an application to read sensors on ITS400 sensor board used with Imote2?

An example application can be found in the attachment file (TestITS400.zip).


--------------------------------------------------------------------------
This program allows reading of all Sensors on the ITS400 Sensor board.

To install, unzip the file into the .../tinyos-1.x/contrib/imote2/test directory. Go to the TestITS400 directory and type make imote2 debug. Then install the program using either the USBLoaderHost -p or JTAG.

Open a Blush window. You will have access to the following new commands:
ReadAccel - Reads the accelerometer x,y,z [g]
ReadTempReg - Reads the TI temperature sensor [deg.C]
ReadADCChannel <n> - Reads the ADC channels, n={0,1,2,3} [V]
Note: other values for n produce bogus data
ReadLightSensor - Reads the light sensor [Lux]
Note: The first reading after boot is bogus
SwitchTempI2CAddr - Changes the I2C address of the TI device
Note: This only applies to older Intel boards
Try this only if ReadTempReg hangs
DisplayI2CAddr - Shows I2C device addresses
ReadSHTTemp - Reads Sensirion temperature sensor [deg.C]
Note: Needs time to warm up
First 5 readings are bogus
ReadSHTHum - Reads Sensirion humidity sensor [%]

Note that entering/exiting sleep mode triggers the issues above as well.

This program is based on the Intel TestBasicSensorBoard application.

UPDATE: As of July 2008, this app has been updated to support ITS400CB. The new version features an updated version of the 3D accelerometer and fixes the interrupt line pull-up errata of the older version. This software update is backwards compatible with the ITS400CA sensor board.

577 - How to add Ethernet/Wifi/Bluetooth to the Imote2?

In order to add Wifi, Ethernet or Bluetooth to the Imote2, two components are needed, the actual hardware and software drivers. The latter exist for Linux, see: <a href="http://embedded.seattle.intel-research.net/wiki/index.php?title=SG2_System_Testing" target="_blank">http://embedded.seattle.intel-research.net/wiki/index.php?title=SG2_System_Testing</a>


While this article is nominally about the Stargate2 it also applies in large to the Imote2. The difference is in the HW configuration. The Imote2 does not have built-in Bluetooth or Ethernet so a driver-compatible USB adapter needs to be used. Also, there is no built-in Wifi in either platform, so again the solution is to pick a compatible USB adapter. The Stargate2 has a standard USB host connector while the Imote2 does not (the USB connector on the Imote2 is a client connector). It does, have, however, all the pins needed for USB on the advanced expansion connectors. A simple 4-wire cable adapter will do:

Imote2 connector/pin --------- USB plug pin

USBH_VBUS_5V (J3/18) --------- VCC (1)

USBH_N (J4/09) --------- D- (2)

USBH_P (J4/10) --------- D+ (3)

GND (J4/08) --------- GND (4)
 

578 - Can I have the part number of the micaz external crystal oscillator?

We use ECS-73-S-18-TR from ECS Inc. This is also available from Digi-Key under the P/N XC592TR-ND.

580 - XMesh-LP RF Power issues in MoteWorks 2.0.F

Problem Description:
The XMesh Low Power (LP) apps compiled under MoteWorks 2.0.F have lower RF power compared to earlier version of MoteWorks.

Root Cause:
The default RF power is set to 0x09 thus reducing the RF power. The RF power settings in MakeXbowlocal don't get utilized since the RFpower is hard coded in the XMesh binaries.

Work-around/fix:
Use the updated object files from the attachment. The steps are:
1. Download the zip file from the attachment and unzip them.
2. Copy these unzipped files into /MoteWorks/tos/radio/cc1000lp/bin folder.
3. Recompile your apps with 'route,lp' flag.

582 - Can you help me with Imote2.Builder kit software running on Windows Vista operating system?

Follow these steps.
1. Install the Imote2.Builder on the Vista machine.
2. Apply "Visual Studio 2005 Service Pack 1 Update for Windows Vista", the patch can be downloaded <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=90E2942D-3AD1-4873-A2EE-4ACC0AACE5B6&displaylang=en"target="_blank">here</a>.
3. Download and Unzip the revised USB driver ("Imote2 USB Driver Vista.zip" file from the attachement) onto the Vista machine.
4. Plug in the Imote2 to the Vista USB port, when it prompts for device driver, load the revised USB driver from this package. If the USB does not detect the new Imote2 device hardware, you need to force a device driver installation. Navigate to the Device driver folder, right click on the file spotusb_vista.inf, select install.
5. Ignore any warning seen in step 2 & 4.
6. The sample applications and tools in the Imote2.Builder should work now as in XP. 

584 - Where can I find a sample application to parse/display data sent from Imote2?

An example application can be found in the attachment file (SerialDump.zip).
The SerialDump tool will print the data an Imote2 is sending over its USB port out onto a simple text-based terminal window. All the source code for the SerialDump application is included in the zipped file to allow developers to quickly get started connecting to the data channel of the Imote2 in the .NET environment.

585 - Where can I find the linux version of uisp for the IRIS platform (ATmega1281)?

The attachment contains the uisp for the Atmel 1281 on linux.
Note that it is a Linux executable and that execute permission may have to be set.

586 - When I type the hostname of the Staragte NetBridge (eg. http://sluggo-0000x) in my web browser, I only get a grey screen, without an option to login. What do I need in order to access different web pages of the gateway?

If you have an older version of Flash player pluggin in your browser, you could get this. The MoteExplorer requires version 9 to work properly. If you have an older version, it should prompt users to get the version 9 from Adobe website (due to some browser settings issue you may not be seeing this pop-up).

You can check your version by right-clicking on the grey screen and "About Adobe Flash Player".
If you have version 8 or older, click <a href="http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer"target="_blank">here</a> to obtain version 9.
You may have to turn off the pop-up blocker to allow ActiveX elements to be installed.
Once the latest version is installed, you may need to restart the browser for the changes to take effect.

593 - Where can I find the latest XServe software update for the Stargate NetBridge?

The latest version of the XServe for NetBridge available <a href="http://gyro.xbow.com//other/SGNBUpgrade.2.4.15.2.zip"arget="_blank">here</a> if you want to try. Please note that these is not fully tested/qualified.

The upgrade instructions are provided below.

1. Download and extract the zip file on to your PC local drive.
2. Copy the upgrade files over to NetBridge (using Samba) as described in section 7.4 of the NetBridge user's manual.

3. Upload the map image (if needed) as explained in section 7.1.3 of the NetBridge user's manual.

4. You may need to clear your browser cache.
Firefox:
1) Go to Tools->Clear Private Data
2) Make sure Cache is checked and click OK
3) Close the browser, Re-open the browser and go to the MoteExplorer page.

IE:
1) To to Tool -> Internet Options
2) Under Browsing History click Delete...
3) Delete Temporary Internet Files
4) Close the browser, Re-open the browser and go to the MoteExplorer page.

650 - How can I convert RSSI received from IRIS Motes into dBm?

The RSSI read from the IRIS Motes is a digital 5-bit value. You need to refer to page 51 of the RF230 datasheet <a href="http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc5131.pdf"target="_blank">here</a> for interpreting it into dBm.

657 - All the temperature sensors on MTS300CB boards read -273.15C and are not responsive. Am I missing something? Do I need to calibrate these boards or do the temp sensors have an issue?

The MTS300/310CBs use a different power control line (PW0) for Temperature
sensor as compared to MTS300/310CA (INT2). The reason was to free up
INT2 line for radio control for MICAz.
It sounds like you are using CA code on CB hardware and hence the Temp
sensor never gets turned on.

The software modification involves changing one line of code.
In sensorboard.h file of the app, change
TOSH_ALIAS_PIN(TEMP_CTL, INT2) to TOSH_ALIAS_PIN(TEMP_CTL, PW0) 

661 - The .NET Micro Framework 2.0 will not install because the installation requires XP SP2 or Windows 2003. How do we get round this?

The work-around requires you to download and install <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=EB0EF2A6-03E2-402C-89A4-A636BD0080C5&displaylang=en"_blank">.NET micro framework 2.5</a> from Microsoft.


This may require <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=BB4A75AB-E2D4-4C96-B39D-37BAF6B5B1DC&displaylang=en">SP1 for the Visual Studio 2005</a>, which can also be downloaded from Microsoft website.

663 - Where can I find the drivers for the IMB400 camera sensor board?

Currently the following drivers and sample applications are available for the IMB400 camera board:

1. Video
There is a preliminary TinyOS 2.x driver available in the contrib section. It can be found on SourceForge and downloaded using CVS or viewed <a href="http://tinyos.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tinyos/tinyos-2.x-contrib/intelmote2/apps/cameraTestJpegSerial/"target="_blank">here:</a>

Thanks to Brano Kusy for porting the original Enalab driver to TinyOS and Robbie Adler for helping debugging the code.

This application is based on TinyOS 2.x. It can be loaded using the USB boot loader if the user has up-to-date tinyos-2x and tinyos-2.x-contrib trees. The following environment variables must be set correctly (replace … with your local path):

export TOSROOT=…/tinyos-2.x
export TOSDIR=$TOSROOT/tos
export INTELMOTE2_CONTRIB_DIR=$TOSROOT-contrib/intelmote2
export MAKERULES=$TOSROOT/support/make/Makerules
export TOSMAKE_PATH=$INTELMOTE2_CONTRIB_DIR/support/make
export CLASSPATH="C:…\tinyos-2.x\support\sdk\java\tinyos.jar;."
export PATH=$PATH:…/Program\ Files/Java/jdk1.6.0_12/bin

Notes: CLASSPATH must be in Windows style for Windows platforms
Replace the Java version in PATH with the one that you have

Alternatively, loading this code will is possible using a FLASH programmer compatible with Imote2.

Also, the driver is currently limited to producing a 320x240 black and white image when compiled with the Wasabi (3.3.1) compiler. If compiled with the newer 3.4.3 xscale-elf-gcc, VGA mode is supported as well. Color mode works, however, the colors are not reproduced well, more work is needed here. Jpeg compression is currently NOT supported. The driver requires the serial interface board IIB2400. In order to use it, you will first have to compile the code in the java subdirectory. The start the serial forwarder as follows:

java net.tinyos.sf.SerialForwarder -comm serial@COMx:115200 -port 9002

Use the 2nd USB COM port of the IIB2400 for COMx. Then start the run script to activate the camera interface. Images will be stored in the C:\tmp\imote2 directory (which needs to be created if it doesn’t exist). They will be in .pgm format. Note that the color and jpeg options of the interface are currently not supported.
A back-port to TinyOS 1.x is in the works and will be posted in the 1.x contrib/imote2 section when ready.

2. Audio
This is a sample application that first plays a jingle, then listens for 3 seconds and finally plays back what it heard. It can be found on SourceForge and downloaded using CVS or viewed <a href="http://tinyos.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tinyos/tinyos-1.x/contrib/imote2/test/TestAVboard/"target="_blank">here:</a>

This TinyOS 1.x application can be installed using the USB boot loader. Thanks to Robbie Adler for developing this driver!

3. PIR
Any TinyOS 1.x application can be used to test the PIR sensor, for example Blink. Make the following modification in the tos/platform/imote2 directory to enable the PMIC alarm interrupt:

############################################################
diff -r1.5 PMICM.nc
422c422
< mask = IMA_ONKEY_N | IMA_EXTON | IMA_CHIOVER;
---
> mask = IMA_ONKEY_N | IMA_EXTON | IMA_CHIOVER | IMA_PWREN1;
############################################################

Recompile, install via the USB boot loader, connect with ImoteConsole to the BluSH shell and type “GoToSleep 20” to put the Imote2 to sleep for 20s. If the PIR sensor is enabled any motion will wake the Imote2 before the 20s are up.


Comments and questions:
Please post to the <a href="http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/intel-mote2-community/"target="_blank">Imote2 Yahoo group</a> for the quickest way to get an answer.

Memsic Wireless Hardware FAQ
Memsic FAQ Wireless Hardware